The concept of bouldering circuits comes from the world famous sandstone bouldering area Fontainebleau just South of Paris, France.The first painted circuit (small colored arrows and numbers are painted onto the rock to signify each bloc) was created in 1947 by Fred Bernick in the Cuvier Rempart area, followed by routes at Les Gorges d'Apremont painted by Pierre Mercier in 1952. The standardization of route color by difficulty (Yellow = PD, Orange = AD, Blue = D, Red = TD, Black = ED, White = ED+) dates back to the 1980s.
Kids Company is on a mission to provide 4,500 Christmas gifts for the children and young people they support to make their Christmas a happy occasion. Many of these children would otherwise be alone or without food and presents if not for Kids Company. The festive season, far from being happy, for them is a sad time of shame, loneliness and hunger.